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Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy 2013 citation boundary

Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy 2013 citation boundary

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� Solutions� Hospitals & Health Systems� Small Practices� Pharmacists� Students & Schools� Individuals� Products� Digital Subscriptions� All Access� Collection App� Web Edition� Antimicrobial Therapy� Hepatitis Therapy� HIV/AIDS Therapy� Print Guides� Antimicrobial Therapy� HIV/AIDS Therapy� Hepatitis Therapy� Internal Medicine� Support� Support for Apps� Antimicrobial Therapy� HIV/AIDS Therapy� Hepatitis Therapy� Sanford Guide Collection� Support for Web� Errata� About� At A Glance� Contact� Editorial Board� Douglas Black, PharmD� Henry Chambers, MD� George Eliopoulos, MD� David Freedman, MD� David Gilbert, MD� Kami Kim, MD� Andrew Pavia, MD� Michael Saag, MD� Brian Schwartz, MD� History� Leadership Team� Legal� Copyright & Trademark� Privacy Policy� Notice to Users� Terms of Use� Mission & Values� Partners� News� Store Clinicians in over 100 countries trust The Sanford Guide for infectious disease information designed for use at the point of care.

Providing comprehensive coverage of treatment options for infectious diseases, syndromes, and pathogens, The Sanford Guide is edited by distinguished�ID experts from leading academic and clinical centers. An essential resource for your Antimicrobial Stewardship programWith�47 years of experience in antimicrobial therapy, The Sanford Guide is the perfect complement to any Antimicrobial Stewardship Program. We help guide�appropriate use of sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy 2013 citation boundary, improve patient outcomes, reduce antimicrobial resistance, and decrease the risk posed�by multidrug-resistant organisms. An essential resource for your Antimicrobial Stewardship programWith�47 years of experience in antimicrobial therapy, The Sanford Guide is the perfect complement to any Antimicrobial Stewardship Program.

We help guide�appropriate use of antimicrobials, improve patient outcomes, reduce antimicrobial resistance, and decrease the risk posed�by multidrug-resistant organisms. An essential resource for your Antimicrobial Stewardship programWith�47 years of experience in antimicrobial therapy, The Sanford Guide is the perfect complement to any Antimicrobial Stewardship Program. We help guide�appropriate use of antimicrobials, improve patient outcomes, reduce antimicrobial resistance, and decrease the risk posed�by multidrug-resistant organisms. "This is an indispensable resource for any physician.

It has never steered me wrong in the treatment of an infection."-Digital content subscriber� Antimicrobial Therapy, Inc.� 11771 Lee Hwy., PO Box 276, Sperryville, VA 22740 USA� +1 540-987-9480 David Talan, M.D., William Mower, M.D., Ph.D., Anusha Krishnadasan, Ph.D., Fredrick Abrahamian, D.O., Frank Lovecchio, D.O., M.P.H., David Karras, M.D., Mark Steele, M.D., Richard Rothman, M.D., Ph.D., Rebecca Hoagland, M.S., and Gregory Moran, M.D. Departments of Emergency Medicine (D.A.T., A.K., F.M.A., G.J.M.) and Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases (D.A.T., G.J.M.), Olive View�UCLA Medical Center, and the Department of Emergency Medicine, Ronald Reagan Medical Center (W.R.M), David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles; the Department of Emergency Medicine, Maricopa Medical Center, University of Arizona, and Mayo Graduate School of Medicine � both in Phoenix (F.L.); the Department of Emergency Medicine, Temple University Medical Center, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia (D.J.K.); the Department of Emergency Medicine, Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the Department of Emergency Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore (R.E.R.); and Cota Enterprises, McLouth, KS (R.H.) BACKGROUNDU.S.

emergency department visits for cutaneous abscess have increased with the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The role of antibiotics for patients with a drained abscess is unclear. METHODSWe conducted a randomized trial at five U.S.

emergency departments to determine whether trimethoprim�sulfamethoxazole (at doses of 320 mg and 1600 mg, respectively, twice daily, for 7 days) would be superior to placebo in outpatients older than 12 years of age who had an uncomplicated abscess that was being treated with drainage. The primary outcome was clinical cure of the abscess, assessed 7 to 14 days after the end of the treatment period. RESULTSThe median age of the participants was 35 years (range, 14 to 73); 45.3% of the participants had wound cultures that were positive for MRSA.

In the modified intention-to-treat population, clinical cure of the abscess occurred in 507 of 630 participants (80.5%) in the trimethoprim�sulfamethoxazole group versus 454 of 617 participants (73.6%) in the placebo group (difference, 6.9 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1 to 11.7; P = 0.005).

In the per-protocol population, clinical cure occurred in 487 of 524 participants (92.9%) in the trimethoprim�sulfamethoxazole group versus 457 of 533 participants (85.7%) in the placebo group (difference, 7.2 percentage points; 95% CI, 3.2 to 11.2; P<0.001). Trimethoprim�sulfamethoxazole was superior to placebo sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy 2013 citation boundary respect to most secondary outcomes in the per-protocol population, resulting in lower rates of subsequent surgical drainage procedures (3.4% vs.

8.6%; difference, ?5.2 percentage points; 95% CI, ?8.2 to ?2.2), skin infections at new sites (3.1% vs. 10.3%; difference, ?7.2 percentage points; 95% CI, ?10.4 to ?4.1), and infections in household members (1.7% vs.

4.1%; difference, ?2.4 percentage points; 95% CI, ?4.6 to ?0.2) 7 to 14 days after the treatment period. Trimethoprim�sulfamethoxazole was associated with slightly more gastrointestinal side effects (mostly mild) than placebo. At 7 to 14 days after the treatment period, invasive infections had developed in 2 of 524 participants (0.4%) in the trimethoprim�sulfamethoxazole group and in 2 of 533 participants (0.4%) in the placebo group; at 42 to 56 days after the treatment period, an invasive infection had developed in 1 participant (0.2%) in the trimethoprim�sulfamethoxazole group. CONCLUSIONSIn settings in which MRSA was prevalent, trimethoprim�sulfamethoxazole treatment resulted in a higher cure rate among patients with a drained cutaneous abscess than placebo.

(Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00729937.) Between 1993 and 2005, annual emergency department visits for skin and soft-tissue infections in the United States increased from 1.2 million to 3.4 million, primarily because of an increased incidence of abscesses. 1, 2 During this period, community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) emerged as the most common cause of purulent skin and soft-tissue infections in many parts of the world.

3 Trimethoprim�sulfamethoxazole, which has retained in vitro activity against community-associated MRSA, is among the most commonly prescribed antibiotics to treat these infections. 4The primary treatment of a cutaneous abscess is drainage. 5 Whether adjunctive antibiotics lead to improved outcomes in patients with uncomplicated abscesses or just more cost and side effects is unclear. Previous investigations, which had small numbers of participants, did not show a benefit of antibiotic treatment.

6� 15 Larger studies are required to show relatively small differences in cure rates, because drainage alone may result in resolution in more than 80% of cases. 16 To determine the efficacy of adjunctive antibiotics, we compared outcomes among 1265 emergency department patients presenting with an uncomplicated cutaneous abscess and treated with drainage who were randomly assigned to receive trimethoprim�sulfamethoxazole or placebo. DesignWe conducted a multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial to determine whether trimetho-prim�sulfamethoxazole, administered for 7 days, would be superior to placebo in emergency department patients who had a skin abscess receiving drainage and who were treated on an outpatient basis.

The full protocol and statistical analysis plan are available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org. The institutional review board at each site approved the trial. Trial sites and conduct are described in the Supplementary Appendix, available at NEJM.org. Trial PopulationFrom April 2009 to April 2013, we enrolled patients older than 12 years of age who had a cutaneous lesion that was suspected to be an abscess on the basis of physical examination and ultra-sonography or examination alone and that was found to have purulent material on surgical exploration.

We enrolled only participants who had a lesion that had been present for less than 1 week and that measured at least 2.0 cm in diameter (as measured from the borders of induration, if the lesion was fluctuant, or from the borders of the abscess cavity on ultrasonogra-phy, if the lesion was not fluctuant), and for whom their treating clinician intended outpatient treatment. Eligible patients had to agree to return for reevaluation and to provide written informed consent.

Exclusion criteria are described in the Supplementary Appendix. Interventions and Baseline EvaluationBefore initiation of the trial, trial personnel underwent standardized training on the general technique 17 and trial-specific procedures for incision and drainage (see the Supplementary Appendix).

Using double-blind, Web-based randomization, we assigned participants in a 1:1 ratio to a 7-day course of trimethoprim�sulfamethoxazole (four single-strength pills, each containing 80 mg of trimethoprim and 400 mg of sulfamethoxazole, twice daily) or placebo (four pills containing microcrystalline cellulose, twice daily). The dose of trimethoprim�sulfamethoxazole was based on existing recommendations. 18 We dispensed the active drug or placebo in blister packs; the first dose was taken from the participant�s blister pack and administered after drainage of the abscess and before discharge from the emergency department.

A participant�s study-group assignment could be unblinded before the participant�s completion of the trial only if the participant had a treatment failure or adverse event for which an acceptable alternative treatment could not be given and the participant�s best care would be threatened if unblinding of the study-group assignment was delayed.

An independent contract research organization (EMMES, Rockville, MD) that developed the randomization code performed centralized randomization, with assignmentNote: Citations are based on reference standards.

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Please enter the message. E-mail Message: I thought you might be interested in this item athttp://www.worldcat.org/oclc/833442863Title: The Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapyAuthor: David N GilbertPublisher: Sperryville, Va. : Antimicrobial Therapy, �2013.ISBN/ISSN: 9781930808768 1930808763OCLC:833442863 The Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy Author:David N GilbertPublisher:Sperryville, Va.

: Antimicrobial Therapy, �2013.Edition/Format:Print book : English : 43rd ed., library ed View all editions and formatsDatabase:WorldCatRating:(not yet rated)0 with reviews - Be the first.Subjects� Anti-infective agents - Handbooks, manuals, etc.� Antibiotics - Handbooks, manuals, etc.� Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use.� View all subjectsMore like this� Similar Items Find more information about:ISBN:9781930808768 1930808763OCLC Number:833442863Notes:Chiefly tables.Description:236 pages : illustrations ; 28 cmContents:Clinical approach to initial choice of antimicrobial therapy -Recommended antimicrobial agents against selected bacteria -Suggested duration of antibiotic therapy in immunocompetent patients -Comparison of antibacterial spectra -Treatment options for systemic infection due to selected resistant gram-positive bacteria -Treatment options for systemic infection due to selected multi-drug reistant gram-negative Bacilli -Suggested management of suspectedor culture-positive community-associated methicillin-resistant aureus infections -Drug desensitization methods -Risk categories of antimicrobics in pregnancy -Antimicrobial dosing in obesity -Selected pharmacologic features of antimicrobial agents -Pharmacodynamics of antibacterials -Cytochrome P450 interaction of antimicrobials -Antibiotic dosage and side-effects -Treatment of fungal infections -Treatment of mycobacterial infections -Treatment of parasitic infections -Antiviral therapy -Antimicrobial prophylaxis for selected bacterial infections -Pediatric dosages of selected antibacterial agents -Dosages of antimicrobial drugs in adult patients with renal impairment -Antimicrobials and hepatic disease: dosage adjustment -Treatment of CAPD peritonitis in adults -Anti-tetanus prophylaxis, wound classification, immunization.Other Titles:Guide to antimicrobial therapyResponsibility:editors: David Gilbert [and others]. Related Subjects: (7)� Anti-infective agents - Handbooks, manuals, etc.� Antibiotics - Handbooks, manuals, etc.� Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use.� Anti-Infective Agents - therapeutic use.� Drug Therapy.� Anti-infective agents.� Antibiotics. < http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/833442863> # The Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy aschema:Book, schema:CreativeWork ; library:oclcnum " 833442863" ; library:placeOfPublication < http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/countries/vau> ; library:placeOfPublication < http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/3861534919#Place/sperryville_va> ; # Sperryville, Va.

schema:about < http://id.worldcat.org/fast/810420> ; # Antibiotics schema:about < http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/3861534919#Topic/anti_infective_agents_therapeutic_use> ; # Anti-Infective Agents-therapeutic use schema:about < http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/3861534919#Topic/drug_therapy> ; # Drug Therapy schema:about < http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85005638> ; # Antibiotics schema:about < http://dewey.info/class/615.329/e23/> ; schema:about < http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/3861534919#Topic/anti_bacterial_agents_therapeutic_use> ; # Anti-Bacterial Agents-therapeutic use schema:about < http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85005613> ; # Anti-infective agents schema:about < http://id.worldcat.org/fast/810345> ; # Anti-infective agents schema:alternateName " Guide to antimicrobial therapy" ; schema:bookEdition " 43rd ed., library ed." ; schema:bookFormat bgn:PrintBook ; schema:contributor < http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/3861534919#Person/gilbert_david_n> ; # David Gilbert schema:copyrightYear " 2013" ; schema:datePublished " 2013" ; schema:description " Clinical approach to initial choice of antimicrobial therapy - Recommended antimicrobial agents against selected bacteria - Suggested duration of antibiotic therapy in immunocompetent patients - Comparison of antibacterial spectra - Treatment options for systemic infection due to selected resistant gram-positive bacteria - Treatment options for systemic infection due to selected multi-drug reistant gram-negative Bacilli - Suggested management of suspectedor culture-positive community-associated methicillin-resistant aureus infections - Drug desensitization methods - Risk categories of antimicrobics in pregnancy - Antimicrobial dosing in obesity - Selected pharmacologic features of antimicrobial agents - Pharmacodynamics of antibacterials - Cytochrome P450 interaction of antimicrobials - Antibiotic dosage and side-effects - Treatment of fungal infections - Treatment of mycobacterial infections - Treatment of parasitic infections - Antiviral therapy - Antimicrobial prophylaxis for selected bacterial infections - Pediatric dosages of selected antibacterial agents - Dosages of antimicrobial drugs in adult patients with renal impairment - Antimicrobials and hepatic disease: dosage adjustment - Treatment of CAPD peritonitis in adults - Anti-tetanus prophylaxis, wound classification, immunization."@ en ; schema:exampleOfWork < http://worldcat.org/entity/work/id/3861534919> ; schema:genre " Handbooks"@ en ; schema:genre " Handbooks and manuals"@ en ; schema:inLanguage " en" ; schema:name " The Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy"@ en ; schema:productID " 833442863" ; schema:publication < http://www.worldcat.org/title/-/oclc/833442863#PublicationEvent/sperryville_va_antimicrobial_therapy_2013> ; schema:publisher < http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/3861534919#Agent/antimicrobial_therapy> ; # Antimicrobial Therapy schema:workExample < http://worldcat.org/isbn/9781930808768> ; wdrs:describedby < http://www.worldcat.org/title/-/oclc/833442863> ; .Related Entities < http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/3861534919#Person/gilbert_david_n> # David Gilbert aschema:Person ; schema:familyName " Gilbert" ; schema:givenName " David N." ; schema:name " David Gilbert" ; . < http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/3861534919#Topic/anti_bacterial_agents_therapeutic_use> # Anti-Bacterial Agents-therapeutic use aschema:Intangible ; schema:name " Anti-Bacterial Agents-therapeutic use"@ en ; . < http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/3861534919#Topic/anti_infective_agents_therapeutic_use> # Anti-Infective Agents-therapeutic use aschema:Intangible ; schema:name " Anti-Infective Agents-therapeutic use"@ en ; . < http://www.worldcat.org/title/-/oclc/833442863> agenont:InformationResource, genont:ContentTypeGenericResource ; schema:about < http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/833442863> ; # The Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy schema:dateModified " 2016-09-12" ; void:inDataset < http://purl.oclc.org/dataset/WorldCat> ; . < http://www.worldcat.org/title/-/oclc/833442863#PublicationEvent/sperryville_va_antimicrobial_therapy_2013> aschema:PublicationEvent ; schema:location < http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/3861534919#Place/sperryville_va> ; # Sperryville, Va.

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For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov. EID journal� October 2016� Manuscript Submission� About the Journal� Background and Goals� Editorial Policy� Copyright, Usage, and Disclaimer� Editorial Board� Editors� Editing-Production� Reviewers� Suggested Citation� About Cover Art� Cover Art Audio� Past Issues� November 2009� Population Mobility, Globalization, and Antimicrobial Drug Resistance� Subscribe� Ahead of Print / In Press� Author Resource Center� Types of Articles� Typeface� Manuscript Preparation� Manuscript Submission� Formatting Tables� Formatting Figures� Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Initialisms� Capitalization� Dates� Geographic Designations� Grammar� Mathematical Modeling Guidelines� Preferred Usage� Punctuation� References� Scientific Nomenclature� Spelling Preferences� Units of Measure� Additional Style Guides and Print Resources� Internet Resources� Search Style Guide� Medscape CME� Podcasts� Announcements� Submit Announcement� More Content� Past Covers� Online Reports� Conference Summaries� International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases (ICEID)� 2012� 2010� 2008� Online Newsroom� Another Dimension� Books and Media� Photo Quizzes� Corrections� Letters� Etymologia� World Health Days� 20-year Timeline� World Health Day� World Hepatitis Day� World Immunization Week� World Malaria Day� World Pneumonia Day� World Rabies Day� World TB Day� 2015 Year in Review� Contact Us� Social Media� RSS Feeds� RSS Help� Syndicated Content� Pinterest� Twitter On This Page� Population Mobility and Association with Infectious Diseases and Microbial Resistance� Role of International Policies, Processes, and Globalization in the Control of Imported Antimicrobial Drug�Resistant Diseases� Proposed Approach to Global Public Health Risk Management� Conclusions� Suggested Citation Author affiliations: Migration Health Consultants Inc., Cheltenham, Ontario, Canada (D.W.

MacPherson); McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (D.W. MacPherson); Migration Health Consultants Inc., Singapore (B.D. Gushulak); Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, Maryland, USA (W.B.

Baine); Food and Drug Administration, Rockville (S. Bala); University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA (P.O. Gubbins); Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA (P. Holtom); Veterans Affairs Medical Center, West Palm Beach, Florida, USA (M. Segarra-Newnham)Suggested citation for this articlePopulation mobility is a main factor in globalization of public health threats and risks, specifically distribution of antimicrobial drug�resistant organisms.

Drug resistance is a major risk in healthcare settings and is emerging as a problem in community-acquired infections. Traditional health policy approaches have focused on diseases of global public health significance such as tuberculosis, yellow fever, and cholera; however, new diseases and resistant organisms challenge existing approaches.

Clinical implications and health policy challenges associated with movement of persons across barriers permeable to products, pathogens, and toxins (e.g., geopolitical borders, patient care environments) are complex.

Outcomes are complicated by high numbers of persons who move across disparate and diverse settings of disease threat and risk. Existing policies and processes lack design and capacity to prevent or mitigate adverse health outcomes. We propose an approach to global public health risk management that integrates population factors with effective and timely application of policies and processes.Human mobility is causing an increase in antimicrobial drug�resistant organisms and drug-resistant infectious diseases.

International population movement is an integral component of the globalization process. Current population movement dynamics rapidly and effectively link regions of marked health disparity, and these linkages can be associated with risk for importation of drug-resistant infectious diseases.During the past century, developments in public health sanitation ( 1), infrastructure engineering ( 2), vaccines ( 3), and antimicrobial drugs have contributed substantially to the control of infectious diseases, markedly decreasing associated illness and death.

These developments have largely occurred in economically advanced regions and have produced complacency and a belief that the public health threats posed by infectious diseases have been conquered. However, by the early 1990s, infectious diseases were again being identified as substantial domestic and international public health threats in and to western nations ( 4).Although many infections of clinical relevance are effectively managed with the use of vaccines, antimicrobial drugs, or newer therapies, challenges to the control of infectious diseases remain.

These challenges occur in industrialized and in developing countries and result at least in part from the failure of antimicrobial drugs to meet expectations for management and control of disease in clinical and public health contexts. Declining antimicrobial drug effectiveness has current and future consequences that affect all elements of the health sector, e.g., research and development, public health policy, service delivery, and payment programs. The emergence of antimicrobial drug resistance adversely affects patient care and threatens effective management sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy 2013 citation boundary public health infectious diseases globally ( 5).Antimicrobial drug failure may occur for many reasons, e.g., reduced adherence to drug therapy, suboptimal dosing, diagnostic and laboratory error, ineffective infection control, counterfeit or altered drugs, and resistance (innate or acquired).

Although much attention is focused on resistance patterns of eubacteria ( 6), resistance is being found for virtually all microbial agents including mycobacteria ( 7, 8), viruses ( 9, 10), parasites ( 11, 12), and fungi ( 13, 14). Antimicrobial drug resistance phenotype is commonly described in terms of the resistance characteristics of the microorganism. These characteristics are either constitutionally based intrinsic characteristics of the organism or resistance factors acquired through induced genetic expression or gene transfer between organisms.Human activities strongly affect acquired resistance.

Emergence of drug resistance in environments that enable sharing of drug-resistance genes between organisms has been documented. Human activities that contribute to ecological niche pressures, such as antimicrobial drug use ( 15) and manufacturing or biological waste disposal into the environment ( 16, 17), can support the development of resistance.Against this background of diverse antimicrobial drug resistance, interregional migration and the processes associated with international population mobility can affect the spread and distribution of resistant organisms.

These mechanisms of spread become increasingly common when people move among locations with disparate delivery of health services, public health systems, and regulatory frameworks for therapeutic drugs, particularly antimicrobial agents.

We describe the role of population mobility in the dispersal of drug-resistant organisms and the emerging need for global standards, programs, and policies in the management of drug resistance, especially for mobile populations. Population Mobility and Association with Infectious Diseases and Microbial ResistanceEach year, ?2 billion persons move across large geographic distances; approximately half cross international boundaries ( Table). The International Air Transport Association reported that their members carried 1.6 billion passengers in 2007, among which 699 million flew internationally ( 24).

The United Nations World Tourism Organization estimated 924 million international tourist arrivals in 2008 ( 19). International movements fo



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